Mapping with bowtie

bowtie is an open source mapping program that’s fast and easy to use.

Installing bowtie

First, set up a new EC2 server as in Renting a computer from Amazon. You’ll need to use a different machine image (AMI) so that we can have more memory and disk space; use ‘ami-fb16f992’, and leave the instance as ‘large’ (the default). This gives you 7.5gb of RAM, 2 processors, each twice as fast as the machine we’ve been using, and 850gb of disk space to work with! It does cost 3 times as much (34 cents/hour) so please remember to shut them down...

Now, log in, and download bowtie. Ordinarily you would do this by going to the bowtie site:

and downloading the latest source release, a zip file – note that it’s tough to use curl to download files from Sourceforge because they hide the real URL from you, so this might be a situation where (outside of this course) you need to download the file to your laptop first.

For the course, I’ve put it on my Amazon files section (in S3) where you can download it directly, so do:

%% cd
%% curl -O
%% unzip

This creates a directory ‘bowtie-0.12.7’, containing the source code. Bowtie is written in C and C++, so unlike Python, you have to go through a compilation step where you build the C/C++ source code into something that the computer can run. To do that,

%% cd bowtie-0.12.7
%% make
%% cp bowtie bowtie-build bowtie-inspect /usr/local/bin

(This will take a while.)

Great! We’ve installed bowtie!

Running bowtie on a Campylobacter data set

Now, let’s go get a data set. We’re going to put it in a directory on a different disk:

%% mkdir /mnt/campy
%% cd /mnt/campy

You can see using ‘df’ that ‘/mnt’ is much bigger than ‘/’, which is where we were working before.

%% df

Note that you can always see how much disk space you have in a particular directory using ‘df $directory’, so e.g.

%% df .

shows the disk space left on your current disk.

Now get the files:

%% curl -O
%% curl -O

This uses the program ‘curl’ to grab the files at those URLs and download them to the EC2 computer; it’s similar to downloading them to your laptop by entering them into your Web browser, then copying them over to the EC2 computer with SCP. The difference is that the files don’t actually have to travel over your local network connection, which is a big advantage – they go straight from wherever they’re hosted (in this case, Amazon S3) to the EC2 computer.

Now, if you do

%% ls

you should see two files, campy-pre-1m.fastq.gz and campy.fa.gz. Uncompress them both:

%% gunzip *.gz

You will now have two files: one, ‘campy.fa’, is the campylobacter genome in FASTA format. The other, ‘campy-pre-1m.fastq’ is a bunch of genome resequencing reads in FASTQ format – take a look at it with ‘less’ if you’re interested.

Now you need to index the genome so that bowtie can work with it. You only need to do this once for each genome:

%% bowtie-build campy.fa campy

And, finally... map!

%% bowtie -p 2 campy campy-pre-1m.fastq >

Here, the ‘-p 2’ says “use both processors”. By default bowtie will use only one.

You should see the following output:

# reads processed: 1000000
# reads with at least one reported alignment: 992463 (99.25%)
# reads that failed to align: 7537 (0.75%)
Reported 992463 alignments to 1 output stream(s)

1m reads, 99.25% of which match!

You can now take a look at the mapping file with ‘less’:

%% less

Each line looks like this:

HWI-EAS216_0019:4:1:1095:15232#0/1      +       campy_genome    830405  TGTTCATTTTCNTTAAACACTGTTCTTGNNACACT     ><7><7>>>5/&0008888;AAAAA##########     0       11:A>N,25:C>T,28:A>N,29:A>N

That’s: the name of the read, the orientation, the chromosome, the position (starting) of the mapped read, the mapped read, the quality scores of the mapped read, something more complicated, and a description of where this read contains mismatches with the reference.

LICENSE: This documentation and all textual/graphic site content is licensed under the Creative Commons - 0 License (CC0) -- fork @ github. Presentations (PPT/PDF) and PDFs are the property of their respective owners and are under the terms indicated within the presentation.
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